Post-Doctoral Fellowship, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
Ph.D., University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
M.S., University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
B.S., Niagara University
Dr. Parkhill received her B.S. in biology from Niagara University in 1998. She then received a M.S. in 2001 and a Ph.D. in 2003 in pharmacology from the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, where she was awarded the Cleveland Fellowship. Dr. Parkhill was a post-doctoral research fellow at the University of Rochester in the Department of Pharmacology and Physiology from 2003-2006. She joined the Wegmans School of Pharmacy in 2006 as one of the founding faculty members of the school.
Dr. Parkhill’s research interests have focused on understanding the cellular and molecular events that occur after opioid receptor activation. Drugs that bind to opioid receptors have long been used to treat pain and their use can lead to addiction and abuse. Dr. Parkhill’s studies opioid receptors using human neuroblastoma cell lines, receptor binding assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and agarose gel electrophoresis. Understanding how opioid effects are mediated may lead to the development of novel therapeutics for opioid addiction. Dr. Parkhill has mentored both pharmacy and undergraduate Science Scholar students in the laboratory.
Her research results have been published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at numerous conferences, including the International Narcotics Research Conference and the Annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. During her time at the University of Rochester, Dr. Parkhill was awarded five travel fellowships from the International Narcotics Research Conference and one travel fellowship from the National Institute on Drug Abuse to present on her research.
Since her arrival at the Wegmans School of Pharmacy, Dr. Parkhill has also been active in course and curriculum development. Dr. Parkhill developed an elective course on substances of abuse and a required course on diversity. She has also played a role in mapping the School’s new curriculum. The results of these efforts have been presented at the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy’s annual meetings. In collaboration with Dr. Jennifer Mathews, the diversity course included a role-reversal exercise called Deaf Strong Hospital in which the students navigate various health care scenarios without using their voices. This project was recognized by St. John Fisher College (Diversity Innovations Award) and the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (Innovations in Teaching Award, Honorable Mention).
Dr. Parkhill teaches in the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and her courses include:
- PHAR 3144 - Systems Pharmacology I
- PHAR 3218 - Introduction to Diversity
- PHAR 3244 - Systems Pharmacology II
- PHAR 3247 - Biosystems II
- PHAR 4144 - Systems Pharmacology III
- PHAR 4244 - Systems Pharmacology IV
- PHAR 5144 - Systems Pharmacology V
- PHAR 5503 - Substances of Abuse
In the classroom, Dr. Parkhill promotes active learning using a variety of techniques, including audience response systems or "clickers." She has been voted as "Teacher of the Year" twice, during the school’s inaugural year in 2007 and the second time in 2011.
Outside of academia, Dr. Parkhill has served the community for the past nine years as a volunteer for Sojourner House at Pathstone, where in 2007, she was named the volunteer of the year.
- Mathews, J. M., Schlehofer, D. A., Parkhill, A. L., Starr, M. J. (2011). Deaf Strong Hospital: A Role-Reversal Exercise Emphasizing Cultural Competency and Awareness American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, Am J Pharm Ed, 75 (3): 1-10.
- Parkhill, A. L., Mathews, J. M., Blanchard, N. R. (2009). Pediatric and Adolescent Sports-Related Injuries and Ailments. US Pharmacist, March 2009.
- Bidlack, J. M., Khimich, M., Parkhill, A. L., Sumagin, S., Sun, B., Tipton, C. M. (2006). Opioid Receptors and Signaling on Cells from the Immune System. J. Neuroimmune Pharmacol., 1: 260-269. [PMID: 18040803]
- Wentland M. P., VanAlstine M., Kucejko R., Lou R., Cohen D. J., Parkhill A. L., Bidlack J. M. (2006). Redefining the structure-activity relationships of 2,6-methano-3-benzazocines. 4. Opioid receptor binding properties of 8-[N-(4'-phenyl)-phenethyl)carboxamido] analogues of cyclazocine and ethylketocycalzocine. J. Med. Chem., 49: 5635-5639. [PMID: 16942039]
- Parkhill, A. L. and Bidlack, J. M. (2006). Reduction of lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-6 production by kappa opioids in a mouse monocyte-like cell line. Int. Immunopharmacol., 6: 1013-1019. [PMID: 16644488]
- Bidlack, J. M. and Parkhill, A. L. (2003). Assay of G-Protein-coupled receptor activation of G proteins in native cell membranes using [35S]GTPgS binding. In: Smrcka, A. V. (Ed.), Methods in Molecular Biology, G Protein Signaling, Vol. 237. Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ, pp. 135-144. [PMID: 14501046]
- Parkhill, A. L. and Bidlack, J.M. (2002). Several d-opioid receptor ligands display no subtype selectivity to the human d-opioid receptor. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 451: 257-264. [PMID: 12242086]
- Parkhill, A. L., Mathews, J. M., Bradford, S., Gainsburg, J., Fearing, S. (2011). Inclusion of a Transgender Panel Discussion in a Required Diversity Course. Poster presentation at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, San Antonio, TX.
- Mathews, J. L., and Parkhill, A. L., (2010). Deaf Strong Hospital: A Role-Reversal Exercise Emphasizing Cultural Competency and Awareness. Poster presentation at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Seattle, WA.
- Parkhill, A. L. and Mathews, J. L. (2009). Evaluation of a Multidisciplinary Elective Course on Substances of Abuse. Poster presentation at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Boston, MA.
- Hilbert, J., Martens, W., Parkhill, A., Smirnow, A., Moxley, R., & the Registry Scientific Committee. (2007). Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) patients enrolled in the NIH Registry. Oral presentation at the International Myotonic Dystrophy Consortium Meeting, Milan, Italy.
- Richards, W., DeBisschop, M., Pankaskie, M., Parkhill, A., Swigart, S. (2007). Mapping Curricular Topics to Courses in Establishing the Curriculum for a New School of Pharmacy. Poster presentation at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Orlando, FL.
- Blanchard, N., Birnie, C., Parkhill, A., O’Brocta, R., DeBisschop, M. (2007). Development and Implementation of a Required Course on Diversity for Doctorate of Pharmacy Candidates. Poster presentation at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Orlando, FL.
- Wentland, M., VanAlstine, M., Kucejko, R., Lou, R., Cohen, D. J., Parkhill, A. L., Bidlack, J. M. (2006). An 8-[N-((4’-phenyl)-phenethyl)carboxamido] analogue of cyclazocine. Poster presentation at 68th Annual Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence, Scottsdale, AZ.